Thursday, November 25, 2021

Mexican/Tejano Rebels in the Texas Revolution of 1811-13

There are no remaining muster rolls of the rebels, and such records, if they existed, were likely burned. The following list of Mexican/Tejano rebels is from a variety of sources, including a list compiled by the Spanish of property belonging to the insurgents who fled Béxar. This list includes some Frenchmen who were legal residents of Nacogdoches. Source: Archivos del Estado de Coahuila at Saltillo.  No. 663, pages 456 to 473. Additional sources are noted in each entry.

Rebel Commanders:

Juan Bautista de las Casas – Leader of the January 1811 uprising against royalist Spain. Read more in the Handbook of Texas.

José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara – First political commander of the Republican Army of the North and Governor Protector of Texas from April-August 1813. Read more in the Handbook of Texas.

José Alvarez de Toledo – Second Governor Protector of Texas, August, 1813. Led the Republican Army of the North at the Battle of Medina. Later secured a Spanish pardon. Read more in the Handbook of Texas.

Outsiders (non-Texas or Mexican Hispanics in the army)

Juan Mariano Picornell – Native Spaniard, aid to Toledo.


Other Rebels:

Domingo Diego Acosta – On list of insurgents. In 1792 was a retired soldier of the presidio of San Antonio. RBB S3:48.

Pedro de Acosta

Francisco Arocha - President of the ruling Junta in San Antonio after the declaration of Texas Independence in April, 1813. He was on the list of insurgents whose property was confiscated. After the battle, a building he owned in San Antonio was used by General Arredondo to house prisoners from the Battle of Medina. Eight of these men suffocated during the first night they were confined. 

Josefa Nuñez de Arocha – The woman who stood up to General Arredondo during the public execution of rebels. She was the wife of Francisco Arocha and sister-in-law of Tomás Arocha (both on the Béxar Junta), and relative of Manuel and Antonio Delgado. While the daughter was a descendant of the Isleño Arocha family, Doña Josefa was a descendant of an even older family, her grandfather, Miguel Nuñez Morillo, had come to Texas as a soldier in 1720. Josefa had born seven children in San Antonio. One account states that Arredondo asked for the identity of the woman who claimed she would make his stomach into a drum and offered a $500 reward for his private parts. Josefa answered that it was her. In another account, Arredondo called for the “Mexican Aunt” and she replied, “Here I am, nephew.” Matovina and De la Teja, 56, n. 54. Memoria de las cosas mas notables que acaesieron en Bexar el año de 13, Mandando el Tirano Arredondo.” Folsom, 99-100. Chabot, Menchaca, 19.

Josefa Paula Agapitha Arocha – Daughter of Josefa Nuñez de Arocha. Was the newlywed wife of Pedro Treviño, who was a rebel who deserted the Republican army and was recommended for promotion by General Arredondo after the battle. Josefa Paula offered a reward of 500 pesos for the head of her own husband. (Matovina and De la Teja, 56, n. 54. Matovina and De la Teja, 56, n. 54. Memoria de las cosas mas notables que acaesieron en Bexar el año de 13, Mandando el Tirano Arredondo.” Folsom, 99-100. 

Ramon de Arocha – On list of insurgents.

Tomás Arocha – Served on the ruling junta after the declaration of independence. He became interim president of Texas after Gutiérrez was forced to resign, but before Toledo arrived. He fled after the Battle of Medina, but was captured at the Trinity and marched back to San Antonio, barefoot and shackled. He was beheaded while his wife Angela Arocha was forced to watch. Schwartz, 61, 126.

Antonio Baca – On list of insurgents.

José Francisco Banegas – A royalist soldier in Nacogdoches who deserted and joined the Republican Army. Was used by Gutiérrez to bring propaganda back into Texas. Was captured and executed by the royalists. Schwartz, 13.

José Ignacio y Barva – Was a native of Nacogdoches who deserted the Republican Army at La Bahía on November 12, 1812, then later deserted the Spanish and arrived back in Nacogdoches prior to March 1, 1813. SWHQ, Vol. XLIX, page 422.

Joseph de la Baume

Bernardo Benites

José Benites

Nícolas Benites – Served as an officer in the Trinidad garrison before joining the Republicans. RBB S8

Petra Benitez

Beramendi (See Veramendi)

Ancelmo Bergara – Spanish royalist soldier who deserted to the rebels. Son of José Bergara and Maria Bernarda de Carbajal. Ancestry was Tlaxcaltecan Native American, family was among the founders of San Antonio in 1716. Bergara was used as a courier by Gutiérrez to bring rebel messages into San Antonio with Luís Grande. According to some accounts, he was executed by Governor Salcedo, but he appears to have survived, possibly escaped. Given his long career, it is possible that he had a son of the same name to whom subsequent details are attributed. An Ancelmo Bergara fought at the Battle of Medina, fought at the Battle of New Orleans, and was serving in Juan Seguín’s company of Tejanos in the 1836 revolution. He was possibly one of the couriers who reported the fall of the Alamo to General Sam Houston. Possibly served as a spy for the Republic of Texas in 1842 in Coahuila. Schwartz, 21-22. Genealogical information provided by Richard Santos of San Antonio, was published in (accessed April 16, 2019 – website no longer available).

Juan Blanco

Nepomuceno Bocanegra

Francisco Borrego – On list of insurgents.

Jose Antonio Carbajal – On list of insurgents.

Antonio Carmona

Francisco Carmona

Francisco de la Cerda

Marcelo Cervantes

Antonio Castro

Miguel Castro

Juan Cortés – Served in the Spanish Army as a captain in 1790s, delivering gifts to Indians. In 1792 was involved in contraband trade importing tobacco and other goods into Nacogdoches. Fled after 1796 to Louisiana. Served as trader in Natchitoches and New Orleans, working for Davenport and Barr (who died in Cortés’ home), but also for the American merchant Benjamin Morgan. Juan Cortés was one of the first people who met Gutiérrez in Natchitoches after his escape in 1811. Subsequently, he brought Gutiérrez and William Shaler upstream from New Orleans to Natchitoches in 1812-13. Was likely instrumental in connecting Gutiérrez with Burrite networks in Louisiana.  RBB S3:37, 271.

Remigio Cruz

José Cuevas

José Antonio Curbelo – On list of insurgents. He apparently survived and was involved with other filibustering expeditions as late as 1817. Ancestry here.

Juan Antonio Curbelo – Fought at Medina, survived and died in exile in Louisiana. From information provided to the author by a descendant, Roland Corbello.

Antonio Delgado – Rebel commander at La Bahía, Alazán and Medina. Son of Manuel Martin Delgado. He was responsible for the execution of 14 royalists, including Governors Manuel Salcedo and Simón Herrera.

Clemente Delgado – Served on the elected town council of San Antonio in early 1800s. RBB S4:427.

Gavino Delgado In the Casas Revolt, had been one of the rebel agents to Nacogoches. Joined in the Zambrano coup, and later deserted the Spanish forces to join with the Republican ARmy of the North somewhere in Northeast Texas. Negotiated with Governor Manuel Salcedo to achieve the surrender of San Antonio. 

Manuel Delgado – Served on the elected town council of San Antonio (alongside Clemente) in early 1800s. RBB S4:427.

José Manuel Delgado/José Delgado – (Possibly same as Manuel Delgado)

Joaquín Delgado

Juan Manuel Enriquez – On list of insurgents.

Feliz Estrada

Tomás Examia – A Spanish corporal who deserted during the siege of La Bahía. Served faithfully in the Republican army.

Jesus Falcon

Francisco Farias

José Andreas Farias – Listed as a corporal in the Company of Béxar in Jan. 1800. (RBB S4:46) Fought in the Battle of Medina, according to George Farias, the Past President of the Los Béxareños Genealogy Society.

Antonio Flores – Was the adjutant of the Mexican contingent of the Republican Army of the North at the outset of the campaign. He swore in the captives taken from the Spanish at Salitre Prairie in August, 1812.

Miguel Flores

Sabas Fuentes – Secretary to Bernardo Gutiérrez during the revolution.

El Frances Galet (“The Frenchman Galet”)

Juan Galván – Possibly a very early deserter to the Republicans, who carried messages to Ignacio Lopez Rayón and to José Gutiérrez, brother of Bernardo. Served as an officer in the Republican forces in the early stages of the campaign in Texas. At La Bahía, it was his desertion (or capture) back to the Spanish with the horses that caused Augustus Magee to distrust the Mexican contingent. Back in Spanish service, he captured three Americans and 300 horses prior to the Battle of Alazán. He was serving as a sergeant in the Béxar Company of the Spanish army as late as 1819. Schwartz, 13, 24, 127-130.

José Luis Gallardo

Juan Garcia – A sergeant in the Mexican contingent of the Republican Army of the North. (Shaler Papers).

Juana de la Garza

Ygnacio y Vicente de la Garza

Luís Grande – Arrested in 1787 for singing a subversive song. Later, his daughter married the French officer in Spanish service, Bernard Despallier. When Despallier joined forces with Gutiérrez, Luís Grande was used as a courier of propaganda into San Antonio, where he was captured and executed in the Alamo. Two of his grandsons, Charles Despallier (Carlos Espalier) and Blaz Phillippe Despallier, served in the Alamo, with the latter leaving before the siege due to illness and later serving at the Battle of San Jacinto.

José María Guadiana – Spanish officer turned Republican commander. Served as Nacogdoches garrison commander tracking smugglers like Phillip Nolan. Rode alongside Augustus Magee in the joint patrol of the Neutral Ground in 1810. Supported the Casas revolt and was removed from command after Zambrano regained power for the royalists. Joined the Republican Army when it took Nacogdoches and served as commander of that post. Forwarded from 170-180 Mexican reinforcements to the Republican Army after the lifting of the siege of La Bahía. Joining the army in San Antonio, he was the chief organizer of the Mexican contingent prior to the Battle of Medina. Seriously wounded at the battle, he died while on the retreat up the Camino Real and was buried by a young relative. Schwartz, 28, 77, 126. RBB S4:3. RBB 4:103. Various additional sources.

Francisco Hernández – Identity unknown, but possibly the Francisco Xavier Hernandez whose children were born in San Antonio in 1816-17, or possibly José Francisco Hernández, who had children from 1808-17. In both cases, the dates suggest he survived and took a pardon. From Steve Gibson, “Descendants of Francisco Hernández,” Béxar Genealogy, available here.

Jose Andres Hernandez

Jose Antonio Hernandez

Xavier Laro

Joaquin Leal – Prominent resident of San Antonio, grandson of Juan Leal Goraz, the first mayor of the city. He was a cousin of Antonio Delgado. He and his family fled after the Battle of Medina with only a sack of corn plucked from their field. They were captured at Trinidad by Elizondo and Joaquin was executed. His daughter, Juana Leal de Tarín was the wife of Vicente Tarín.

José Leal

José Antonio de Leon

Jose Gil de Leyba

Domingo Losoya

Miguel Losoya

Antonio Martinez

Francisco Martinez

Juan Martinez

Miguel Menchaca – The senior Mexican/Tejano soldier in the Republican Army of the North. May have been in Louisiana when the filibuster began and joined Gutiérrez early. Upon Samuel Davenport’s departure, Menchaca appears to have assumed Davenport’s command of the native Mexican troops. At La Bahía, he led the ambush that opened the final battle. He distinguished himself in the pursuit of the retreating Spanish army and was wounded at Rosillo. Was in command of one wing of the Republican Army at the Battle of Medina. His wounding precipitated the collapse of the force. He died of his wounds shortly after the battle and was possibly buried by his compatriots not far from the Battlefield.

José Menchaca – Former Spanish soldier who switched sides and aided Gutiérrez in escaping through Texas in 1811. He was left behind to be the leader of the abortive 1811 filibuster on behalf of Gutiérrez. American sources suggest he betrayed the cause, though he may have merely been captured. He was sent to Chihuahua as a prisoner and died around 1820.

Luciano Menchaca – On list of insurgents.

José Maria Mona – A native of Nacogdoches who deserted to the Republican Army.

Gertrudis Montes

Miguel Musquiz – Spanish officer and former commandant at Nacogdoches who became a republican – probably not of his free will – after the capture of San Antonio. During the Battle of Medina, he deserted to the royalist cause and delivered the news to Arredondo that the republicans were exhausted and at the breaking point. This news gave the royalists a morale boost and led to their final victory.

Gabriel de la O

Gregorio Ortega – An Ensign in the Republican Army of the North, as noted in the Shaler Papers.

Manuel Pena

Ygnacio Pena

Adolfo Perez – Was in the scouting company of the Republican Army with Lt. Pablo Rodriguez. Both men fought in the Battle of Medina, were wounded and survived, but Perez was later captured and executed.

Ambrosio Perez

Bartolo Perez – Delivered a letter from Gutiérrez to Col. Ignacio Elizondo asking him to join the Republican Army of the North.

Manuel Perez – On list of insurgents.

Juan de Dios Perez – Was arrested in 1819 by Spanish Governor Martinez as a fugitive from the revolution. (Letters of Antonio Martinez).

Pedro Prado – Was among the Republican soldiers who marched the Spanish commanders to their execution. The Spanish government placed a 250 peso reward on his head.

Pedro Procela – A Spanish militiaman left in official command of Nacogdoches when the royalists abandoned the town. Joined Gutiérrez’ forces and was the man responsible for the letter attempting to draft the citizens of Bayou Pierre. After the republicans’ defeat, he changed his name to Pedro Chino and returned to obtain amnesty, but he had been exempted from amnesty by Arredondo and was arrested by Spanish Governor Martinez. He later escaped from jail with six others. (Letters of Antonio Martinez, 44-65).

Claudio Ramirez – On list of insurgents.

Lorenzo Ramos – On list of insurgents.

Manuel Rendon

Miguel del Rio

Mariano Rodriguez – Served on Gutiérrez’ ruling Junta in April, 1813. On August 4, after Gutiérrez resigned, Rodriguez was appointed interim secretary of the new government.

Lt. Pablo Rodriguez – A native of San Antonio and son of Elena Rodriguez. As a boy, he had been abducted by Comanches, who had killed his father. While staying with them, he made relations that he would later use in the revolution. He served in the company of scouts for the Republican Army, and recruited the Indian Chief Prieto, who informed the rebels that Arredondo was on his way to the city. It was his family with whom Carlos Beltrán lived from about 1808. He was close friends with Adolfo Perez, and served with him at Medina, was wounded and survived. Perez was later captured and executed.

Christoval Rodriguez

Francisco Rodriguez

José Antonio Ruiz

José Francisco Ruiz – Served in the Spanish forces as a militia captain. Was wounded at La Bahía and became a quartermaster. After the royalist defeat, he corresponded with Miguel Menchaca to negotiate a possible surrender deal. When the republicans took San Antonio, he joined them. After the Battle of Medina, he was the secretary of the government-in-exile in Louisiana, where he stayed for 9 years. He later signed the Texas Declaration of Independence of 1836 and served in the republic’s senate. Read more in the Handbook of Texas.

Antonio Saenz – One of the officers from Father Hidalgo’s command who came through Texas to deliver gold to purchase weapons during the period of the Casas revolt.

Juan Salazar – One of the officers from Father Hidalgo’s command who came through Texas to deliver gold to purchase weapons during the period of the Casas revolt.

Jose Sanchez – According to Beltrán’s account, was a nephew of Señora Elena Rodriguez. He had been wounded at the Battle of Rosillo and later served in Beltrán’s scouting troop. He traveled with Beltrán to the west to hide out with Comanches after the battle.

Manuel Sanchez

Nepomuceno San Miguel

Lieutenant Santos – A Republican Army soldier who was in the detachment that executed the royalist officers. Beltrán’s account suggests it was he who was asked to deliver a watch and ring to one of the governor’s wives (the account incorrectly states it was Governor Cordero, it was likely Governor Herrera).

Gertrudis de los Santos

José Antonio Saucedo – Served on Gutiérrez’s junta after April, 1813. He signed the letter to General Toledo to order him not to enter Texas.

Juan Savías (Sava) – Was a Spanish royalist officer captured near Nacogdoches. At the Siege of La Bahía, boldly led an expedition to secure much-needed livestock to feed the garrison in the middle of winter. Was part of the force that harassed royalists. Villars says he served with distinction, but he is not mentioned prominently in any sources after Rosillo, so he may have been injured in that battle.

Erasmo Seguin – The San Antonio postmaster and famous father of Juan Seguin was probably never a rebel by choice. After the republicans took San Antonio and executed the leading royalists, Erasmo Seguin offered to work for the rebel cause by obtaining supplies in Louisiana. Here he wrote several letters on behalf of the Toledo, which he later said were under duress by Toledo and William Shaler. He returned after the Battle of Medina and was tried for treason and found not guilty. He was restored to his offices and property.

Vicente Tarín – Served as a lancer in the Spanish Army, as a sergeant in the Second Flying Company of San Carlos de Parras, at the Alamo from 1803. In that year, a commander said of him, he “has much valor, suitable for discharging any commission except that of properties, is more intelligent [than other soldiers] in papers…is exact in the service, and commands with elegance the exercise of infantry and cavalry.” Was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant and married Juana Leal in 1810. He joined the rebels, probably around Nacogdoches and served in most of the battles of the revolution, apparently as an officer, though the Mexican continent’s structure is poorly documented. Served in the Battle of Medina and survived. Was in exile in Louisiana while his wife endured abuse in San Antonio. Served in the Long Expedition and was one of the signatories of his Declaration of Independence.

Francisco Travieso – Initiated the Casas revolt in January 1811.

Vicente Travieso – Served on Gutiérrez’ junta after April 1813 and signed the letter to General Toledo to order him not to enter Texas. Fought at the Battle of Medina and survived. The Spanish government placed a 250 peso reward on his head. He was captured and executed by Spanish forces.

Joaquin del Toro

Juan Antonio Urrutia

José Flores Valdes

Juan Diego Velez

Fernando Veramendi

Juan Martin Veramendi – Was in the Zambrano counter coup, but later joined the Republicans. He fought at the Battle of Medina and fled along with José Francisco Ruiz, with a 250 peso bounty on his head. He remained for many years in exile and returned to Texas after independence, becoming a leading statesman. He was the Collector of Foreign Revenue in San Antonio under Mexico, and served on the convention that drafted the Mexican Constitution of 1824. His daughter Ursula married Jim Bowie. Read more about him in the Handbook of Texas.

Jose Antonio Villegas

Josefa Ynojosa (Hinojosa)


1 comment:

  1. James, great job! This is an excellent resource. Here's a link for more info on Clemente Delgado Also, Jose Delgado and Jose Manuel Delgado were the sons of Manuel Delgado.