Friday, January 14, 2022

Republican Army Strength

The Republican Army of the North, the force which invaded Texas in August 1812, was an army always in flux. For this reason, pinning down the army's strength is a very difficult thing.

The original filibuster core of the force, which crossed the border and captured Nacogdoches on August 11, was only about 150 men. But the army soon began adding new recruits, both from additional filibusters arriving from Louisiana and native Tejanos and Indians who joined. Following the epic siege of La Bahia, the army defeated the Spanish royalists at Rosillo and captured San Antonio. Then, following the execution of 11 Spanish royalist officers by vengeful natives, large numbers of Anglo Americans went home. Some left, never return. Others, like Samuel Kemper, took furloughs and returned to fight later on.

Even while this was happening, new recruits were always coming to Texas and replacing old fighters, or even augmenting them. Thus, the strength seems to have always been uncertain. But there are some datapoints that can be considered in piecing together the army strength.

Invasion of Texas, August 1812: 130-150 men.[1] The army’s agents in Natchitoches claimed an additional 500-600 men were on the way to join them. Spanish Commander Bernardino Montero learned on July 27 from a French creole that there were 365 Americans on the other side. This number was likely inflated, though the smaller (150) number may have been merely an advanced force which penetrated Texas, and these follow-on troops, whatever the number, likely followed in their wake.[2]

Other Spanish sources suggest from 2,000-3,000 men were to join. These modest and fanciful numbers, respectively, were likely projections of hoped-for strength, not reality. In any event, the proclamation of Gov. William C.C. Claiborne on August 11 outlawing the affair, may have deterred many of these.

Nacogdoches: September, 1812: 240 men. Whatever the numbers which turned back after the proclamation, significant numbers, possibly several hundred, continued on, but took time to augment the force. Around this time, William Shaler, a close observer, estimated the total number of Americans at 240. This includes the first Tejano/Mexican contingents of the army began to be formed in Nacogdoches. These were likely small as some soldiers chose to “serve” in their hometown. The total number who joined the army itself (mostly Spanish deserters) was probably only around 50.[3]

Trinidad de Salcedo, October 1812: 450-500 men. This is where the numbers get confusing. William Shaler would say he didn’t know how many men were in the republican force within 300 men! But this appears to be the time that the bulk of the follow-on recruits arrived, although they appear to have trickled in rather than arrived in large masses. The percentage was likely around 3 Anglos to every 1 Mexican. The army had at least three four pounder cannon and one other of unknown size.[4]

La Bahía, November 1812-Febuary 1813: 450-800 men. At La Bahía, the army occupied the presidio and was then besieged. The numbers of fighters swayed somewhat, with the additions and subtractions being almost entirely from local Tejanos or captured royalists. Some deserted to and from the republicans, making the nature of this change impossible to determine.

Battle of Rosillo, March 29, 1813: 400-800 men. After the Siege of La Bahía was lifted, Reuben Ross and James Gaines arrived with additional reinforcements of Anglo-Americans and Indians, respectively. Gaines places the number at about 600, and another member of the army gave the same number. Other sources suggest a higher number, but these may include troops not classified as “effective” – including, for example, wounded or sick. Coming off a siege of nearly four months, it would be understandable if large numbers were ill. Additionally, more Mexican residents of La Bahía likely joined them, along with a small number of citizens of San Antonio, who had filtered past the retreating Spaniards. As for the Spanish numbers they faced, Hall places it at 2,500, which is virtually impossible, given the available manpower. The number is likely slightly in excess of the Republican numbers, possibly 1,000-1,500.[5]

San Antonio, April 9, 1813: Approximately 650-700 men. This is the only “good” datapoint we have on the army, courtesy of a document recently discovered in the US National Archives. This is the only known muster roll of the army, not including names, but aggregates named by company. The total, which includes Anglo-Americans only, is 439. This shows remarkable consistency with some of the numbers in previous accounts, and extrapolating Mexicans and Indians from those, we get around 650-700 men. This is about the time of the desertions caused by the massacre of the Spanish royalists, but most evidence points to those desertions being made good if not augmented, by new arrivals.

Battle of Alazán, June 20, 1813: 900 men. This is another key, good datapoint, from the Alazán order of march document also discovered in the National Archives. This lists 250 Anglo-Americans - a significant drop in the forces from the April 9 document. This likely represents the desertions having finally run their course, but also likely does not include the sick, which the April 9 document does. What we do see is a significant growth in the Mexican/Tejano contingent, to around 200 on foot and 300 mounted. Around 150 Indians are counted, rounding out the number. This represents the turning point in which the army finally has a majority native Mexican contingent, though the leadership in the field is still Anglo-American. However, this comes with a caveat. As the document states, "About 600 only of the 900 can be depended [on] as about 1/2 of the Indians and many Mexicans are without firearms & some lack spirit."

Battle of Medina, August 18, 1813: 1,500-1,800. The numbers of the Republican Army of the North at the Battle of Medina are, like most other numbers, uncertain. But we can make an educated guess.

Subsequent republican sources give the following size of the army: Joseph Wilkinson, 1,200; Bullard, 1,500 and Beltrán, 1,800 (consisting of 1,000 Mexicans and 800 Americans). After the battle, Kemper and Toledo told an American newspaper editor that there were about 450 Americans and between 600-700 Mexicans, for just under 1,000 (almost certainly downplayed). The source for Kemper and Toledo’s numbers is the following article: “We have No further Particulars of the affair of the 18th ult. near San Antonio…” Daily National Intelligencer, October 18, 1813. Joseph Wilkinson to Shaler, June 25, 1813. CSA. [Bullard] “A Visit to Texas.” Hunter, “The Battle of Medina,” 10.

There are two documents, both captured by Arredondo, which outline the Republican Army’s order of battle. The first is a letter from Guadiana to Henry Perry on August 5 and the second is Guadiana’s order of march on August 13. The former lays out Perry’s regiment, which consists of the Washington and Madison Battalions. Each has 4 companies of 126 men, giving the regimental strength as 8 companies and 504 men (including staff). There is additionally a second American regiment, which will be placed under Kemper. Notably, the size of Kemper’s regiment is not given, nor is its structure.

If the two American regiments were equal in size (2 battalions of 4 companies each) and the battalions at full strength, that would give the Anglo contingent alone over 1,000 men, not even counting artillerists. As this is nearly four times the size of the Anglo force at Alazán and twice Shaler’s estimate, it is certainly inflated. Multiple sources suggest that Toledo inherited an army that was ethnically mixed and then broke them into separate divisions, and one is tempted to suspect this is the source of the large number of 1,000 in the Perry letter, for if the Mexican contingent was within the regimental structure on April 5, but separated from it before April 13, that would account for the high number. Yet the Alazán order of battle document shows that the army was already operating in separate contingents in that earlier battle. All sources suggest the Mexican troops outnumbered the Anglos at the Battle of Medina. Given 1,000 Anglos, the army would have to be 2,200-2,500 men, far above any republican estimate.

The order of march document, additionally, suggests that the names “Washington” and “Madison” denote not two battalions within one regiment, but separate regiments themselves. This document also clearly shows the Mexican contingent as separate, since they march between the Washington and Madison regiments or battalions. But this later document gives no numbers for any contingent.

There is an interpretation that this author feels accounts for both the naming discrepancy and what appears to be the inflated size of the army that the two-regiment structure suggests. When Guadiana wrote his letter to Perry on August 5, shortly after Toledo’s arrival, Samuel Kemper had not yet returned from the United States. His regiment, undescribed in the letter, was to be led in the interim by a Sergeant Major (who was probably Josiah Taylor given his later role). Guadiana expected that Kemper would bring a significant reinforcement along with him.

This, and perhaps a small contingent already awaiting him under Taylor, would stand up the second regiment. This is given credence by the fact that the 8 companies (4 per battalion) reflected in the Perry regiment alone exactly mirrors the 8 companies at Alazán. Thus, Perry’s regiment likely was the bulk of the veteran army, and Kemper’s regiment in waiting a mere skeleton force to be filled out by reinforcements.

But, as Beltrán wrote, “Toledo expected to leave the Sabine with an army of at least 2,000 men…but in this, he was sorely disappointed.” Whatever men Kemper brought with him were much smaller than needed. Had Kemper’s reinforcement been more than 200, the sources undoubtably would have recalled its arrival, but it passed unremarked upon.

It seems likely that after Kemper’s arrival with a smaller force, this fanciful structure was then altered, and the Washington and Madison battalions themselves became regiments, suggesting the final number was something close to the 504 listed in the August 5 document, plus Kemper’s reinforcement and whatever other troops were available. These were then all effectively placed under the command of Kemper, with possibly one regiment under Perry the other one under Taylor.

Historically, the Anglo contingent had been 422 before the desertions caused by the execution of the Royalists, then 250 at Alazán. It had likely grown to 500-600 by August 5. Thus, the likely Anglo contingent was probably in the 600-800 range when all is said and done. Adding in a very plausible Mexican contingent of 1,000, this puts the numbers in line with Bullard and Beltrán’s estimates (1,500/1,800). This then is the structure and numbers this author assumes in the book.

[1] Sibley to Eustis, August 5, 1812 in Garrett, “Dr. John Sibley,” Vol. 49, No. 3.

[2] Bernardino Montero to Manuel Salcedo, July 23, 1813. “Texas History Research, Neutral Territory” Folder, Karle Wilson Baker Papers, Ralph W. Steen Library, Stephen F. Austin State University.

[3] Shaler to Monroe, August 18, 1812, Shaler Letterbooks. Henry P. Walker, “William McLane’s Narrative,” Vol. 66, No. 2 (Oct. 1962), 243. Baker, 224-9. Henry P. Walker, “William McLane’s Narrative,” SWHQ, Vol. 66, No. 2 (Oct. 1962), 243-5. RBB Vol.70: 244.

[4] Hall account in Lamar papers, Gulick 4(1):279. Gulick, 6:146. Shaler to Monroe, October 1, 1812, Shaler to Monroe, October 6, 1812, Shaler to Monroe, November 10, 1812, Shaler Letterbooks.

[5] Gulick 1:45. Baker, 227. Reuben Ross to William Shaler, April 15, 1813, CSA. Gulick, 5:365. Walker, “McLane's Narrative,” 66, No. 3 (Jan. 1963), 460. “1813 Letter from Bart Fleming to Levin Wailes, Esq.,” June 7, 1813, in Gutiérrez de Lara collection, Eugene C. Barker Texas History Center, The University of Texas at Austin, cited in I. Waynne Cox, “Field Survey and Archival Research for the Rosillo Creek Battleground Area, Southeast San Antonio, Texas,” Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State: Vol. 1990 , Article 1, available at: (accessed August 24, 2021), 3.

Arsene Lacarriere LaTour

  Among the men associated with the Republican Army of the North is a shadowy Frenchman who traveled with José Álvarez de Toledo and his party as they traveled from Philadelphia to Texas. He was  identified by Henry Adams Bullard only as “LaTour,” a native of New Orleans and had changed his name from Calinette. In fact, he was almost certainly deceiving Bullard and Toledo. This man was Arsène Lacarrière-Latour, not a Louisiana native but a French-born military architect who studied at the Paris Academy of Fine Arts and likely participated in the French Revolution before settling in New Orleans. 

Arsene Lacarriere LaTour

Latour moved to Haiti in 1793, but around 1802 he established himself in New Orleans, where he opened an architectural design firm and drafting school in 1810. The firm appeared to prosper with several important contracts over the next year, but Latour for some unknown reason traveled to Philadelphia, where he established a friendship with Don Juan Mariano Picornell, an old Spanish revolutionary. It was certainly through him was brought into Toledo’s scheme. He may have been a mere architect traveling for business, but his behavior shows a suspicious consistency of deception. Latour throughout his travels “adopted many personas” including an advance agent for Napoleon’s new empire in the Caribbean, businessman and engineer, according to historian Gene A. Smith, who added, “[Latour] wore many social masks and spoke in a variety of cultural dialects,” a man of shifting loyalties, but for whom the ultimate loyalty was to himself. “Propelled by the same self-interest that obsessed the sober-minded, this French adventurer exploited the competing empires and rival nationalities in the Gulf Coast to achieve personal success if not eternal glory. The evidence that Arsène Latour is Bullard’s “LaTour” is that Smith notes that he frequently traveled to the North and became associated with Picornell on one of his journeys.

In the end, though, Latour appears to have departed the group in Louisiana and returned home, where he would serve two years later on the staff of Gen. Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, and wrote a book about the campaign. [1]  


[1] Edwin H. Carpenter, Jr. “Arsène Lacarrière Latour” The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 2 (May, 1938), 222. Gene A. Smith, “Arsène Lacarrière-Latour: Immigrant, Patriot-Historian, and Foreign Agent,” in Michael A. Morrison, ed., The Human Tradition in Antebellum America. (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., 2000), 83. Latour’s book was Historical memoir of the War in West Florida and Louisiana in 1814-15, Published in 1816.

Wednesday, December 8, 2021

The Murder of the Spanish Royalists

After the Republican Army of the North took San Antonio in April, 1813, fourteen royalist officers, including Governors Manuel Salcedo and Simon Herrera, were tried. Found guilty, they were sentenced by the court to death, but after vociferous complaints by the Anglo-American contingent of the army, the sentences were commuted to banishment. 

Nonetheless, in the early morning hours of April 4, the officers were marched out under heavy guard to the site of the recent Battle of Rosillo and executed. I take up the story with the account of Carlos Beltran, the Mexicanized American:

Beltrán, the American who had lived so long amongst the Mexicans, had been chilled by his fellow Bexareños’ stony silence upon hearing of the captives’ reprieve. On the evening of April 3, he left the city to go visit a friend and relative of his adoptive Tejano family, José Sánchez, just outside of town. The latter, who had been among the Tejano troops at Rosillo, was severely wounded in the battle. Beltrán and another friend, Pablo Rodríguez, spent the evening nursing their injured comrade. They returned just before dawn and were surprised to see a large body of Mexican cavalry waiting outside the Alamo. Out of curiosity, the two young men walked up to them and saw the prisoners being placed on horses for their journey. To their surprise, the men were bound securely with ropes to their horses. Ominously, the commander of the guard was the same Antonio Delgado who had threatened the royalists before.[1]

I knew Captain Delgado quite well – we had always been on the most friendly terms – and, observing me closely watching his movements, he brusquely asked what I was doing there, and who had sent me to spy on his actions. I answered by saying that I was there on my own volition and that considering the high station held by these prisoners, I thought it a shameful humiliation to their dignity and manhood to tie them on their horses when there was absolutely no occasion for such brutal treatment, and that I would immediately report the matter to Colonel Kemper. This seemed to nettle the captain, and he ordered us away.[2]

Beltrán and Sánchez rushed over the river and entered the town, where they tracked down Kemper and Ross. The American commanders were appalled at what they heard. They had known of the transport – indeed, Kemper had even signed a letter authorizing it. But they had expected humane treatment and certainly would not have agreed to the troop being led by Delgado. Upon discovery that Delgado’s party had already departed, Kemper and Ross “went straightway to the quarters of Gutiérrez and demanded the return of the prisoners without delay,” Beltrán wrote. “They told Gutiérrez that they had pledged their honor, as American soldiers, for the safety of those men...” Gutiérrez insisted that the Spaniards were safe, that Delgado was a reliable and honorable soldier, and if anything happened to the prisoners, Gutiérrez would have Delgado shot immediately upon his return.[3]

Delgado and his prisoners, with an escort of 100 men on foot, had left in the early morning hours of April 4, leading a group of 14 royalists, including nine native-born Spaniards and five Creoles. It had been four and a half years since Manuel Salcedo had trekked across the United States, dined with Natchitoches Indian Agent John Sibley, then entered Texas on the heels of the French revolutionary general Octaviano D’Alvimar. He had sought in that time to do his job dutiful to his king and country. His enemies, of course would counter with charges of cruelty. Nonetheless, he had weathered storm after storm with few resources, while enduring the many slights and petty tyrannies of his uncle. During the Casas revolt, he had pathetically attempted to demote himself to ordinary soldier rather than go into captivity. Then, there was imprisonment, liberation and the masterminding of the victory at the Wells of Bajan, where he no doubt felt he had helped save the empire he loved so much. Now, it seemed, this was the end.[4]

Simón de Herrera y Leyva was older than Salcedo by 20 years. He had been the governor of Nuevo León, fought bravely for his country in an expedition against the Portuguese in South America, helped besiege Gibraltar, then fought alongside Bernardo de Gálvez in the Spanish army in 1782-83. He even led a highly successful attack against a force of Apaches and Comanches. He had faced off with General Wilkinson in what had almost been an American-Spanish war in 1806, before the two had negotiated the Neutral Ground Agreement, preventing conflict, but ultimately fueling the insurgency that had now brought him to the very brink. Herrera’s fate was the most tragic. With his good command of English and friendly disposition, he had won over the sympathy first of Dr. Robinson, then Augustus Magee, and finally Samuel Kemper. There are hints that Herrera may have been a closet supporter of the revolution. If he had switched to the rebel cause, he could have brought much of his own state of Nuevo León into the rebel fold. But it was not to be.[5]

Riding alongside Herrera that day was his younger brother, Geronimo Herrera and six fellow Spaniards. Three native-born, but loyal, Mexicans accompanied them: Captain Miguel Arcos, who had been the judge who condemned Gutiérrez’s messengers Bergara and Grande, along with his two sons. A civilian from San Antonio who had assisted in the arrest of Colonel Delgado was also with them. Now this party was led by Colonel Delgado’s father Antonio, and they were not going to La Bahia or Matagorda, and certainly not to Cuba. It is doubtful that the ship Gutiérrez had conjured up in his speech in the plaza in San Antonio had ever existed.[6]

A few miles out of San Antonio, and not far from the Rosillo battlefield, was a place called La Tablita. It lay near where the Salado creek flowed into the San Antonio River, and here the party halted. The prisoners were untied from their horses and made to dismount. Their guards then proceeded to tie them to trees. The royalists, knowing what was about to happen, begged their captors to at least delay the execution until a priest could be brought down from the city to give them last rites, but this was refused. “You sent my father into eternity, denying him the consolation of religion in his last extremity,” Delgado allegedly sneered to Salcedo’s face. One of the governors, probably Salcedo, was the third man to be tied up, and in Beltran’s account called to one of the republicans, a Lieutenant Santos. He handed him his watch and his ring and asked that they be given to Dr. Orramel Johnston – the Anglo-American doctor and brother of their would-be lawyer – to be delivered on to his family.[7]

The rebels stripped the men of their clothing then finished tying their victims. Lieutenant Col. Herrera, according to Beltrán, “warned Delgado of the day of signal retribution and defied him to do his worst.” Another account says of him, “It is said Herrera prayed earnestly to be that shot instead of being butchered like a dog.” A third account says it was Salcedo who made the request. The sources differ on whether the request was granted, but given the level of brutality, one suspects it was not. According to one witness, the governor’s tongue was cut out, ending these requests. José Antonio Navarro, who was not a witness, but reported the event second-hand, said Delgado’s men had no swords, only the dull knives they kept on their belts for camp use. “With inhuman irony, some of the assassins sharpened their knives on the soles of their shoes in the presence of their defenseless victims.” They hurled insults upon the prisoners, then cut their throats. When this was done, Delgado’s men left them tied to the trees, where they drowned in their own frothing blood. After they expired, the bodies were taken down and tossed into the creek.[8]

There were 14 royalists executed. The actual list of names varies from source to source, but the names listed as in the presumably accurate burial records were: Manuel Salcedo, Simon Herrera, Geronimo Herrera, José Goseachocea, Juan Ignacio Arrambide, Lieutenant Juan Caso, José Amador, Francisco Pereira, Joaquín Ugarte, Antonio López, José Mateos, Captain Miguel Arcos, along with his two sons, Francisco and Luis.

[1] Navarro said Delgado’s escort was 60 men. Hunter, “San Antonio’s First Great Tragedy,” 47. Anonymous [Navarro] account in Gulick, 4(2):7.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Hunter, “San Antonio’s First Great Tragedy,” 47. Baker, 228-9. “Deposition of Guillermo Navarro,” April 8, 1813, in I. Wayne Cox, 21.

[4] Salcedo’s wife and daughter appear to have remained in New Orleans. It is possible they never even entered Texas. Samuel Davenport, who visited the town periodically on business, kept Salcedo informed about his family’s situation. Presumably, Gen. Herrera’s family was still in Mexico. La Vere, 114.

[5] Harris Gaylord Warren and Jack D. L. Homes, “Herrera, Simon de,” HOTO, accessed May 12, 2018.

[6] There were 14 royalists executed. The actual list of names varies from source to source, but the names listed as in the presumably accurate burial records were: Salcedo, Herrera, Geronimo Herrera, José Goseachocea, Juan Ignacio Arrambide, Lieutenant Juan Caso, José Amador, Francisco Pereira, Joaquín Ugarte, Antonio López, José Mateos, Captain Miguel Arcos, along with his two sons, Francisco and Luis. Along with the governors, five of these had been among the royalists initially sent to Mexico by Casas two years before.

Of five sources reporting the names, the closest, with 12 of 14 names correct (and each with one additional incorrect name), are Carlos Beltrán and José Antonio Navarro. The fact that Beltrán is so accurate, and includes a name that Navarro does not, is alongside other verifiable facts in his account, definitive proof that his narrative is at least partially authentic. The other accounts are Spanish soldier Guillermo Navarro (discussed later in this chapter), Antonio Menchaca, and an unknown republican soldier writing an account reported by John Sibley. Burial records from San Fernando Church Burial Book 3, 1802-1817, Archives of the Archdiocese of San Antonio, Texas. This is reprinted in Waynne, 27-34, available at: Hunter, “San Antonio’s First Great Tragedy,” 47. Anonymous [Navarro] account in Gulick, 4(2):8. “Deposition of Guillermo Navarro,” April 8, 1813, in I. Wayne Cox, 21. Sibley to Secretary of War, May 7, 1813, in Garrett, “Dr. John Sibley,” 49, no. 3 (Jan., 1946), 425. Chabot, Texas in 1811, 82.

[7] In Beltrán’s account, the prisoner who hands over his possessions is identified as Governor Antonio Cordero, but this is impossible, since Cordero was not in Texas and indeed lived until the 1820s. Beltrán was likely confused; elsewhere in the account, he admits that he’s not sure of all the details because of the lapse of the decades between the event and the recording of it. Orramel Johnston’s connection to the prisoners is unknown, though his brother was their legal counsel. It is possible Orramel, a doctor, attended the prisoners. Hunter, “San Antonio’s First Great Tragedy,” 48. “Deposition of Guillermo Navarro,” April 8, 1813, in I. Wayne Cox, 21.

[8] Mexican Historian Lúcas Alaman placed the blame for the murder on Captain Pedro Prado as the commander of the execution squad, though American sources all identify Delgado as the commander of the executioners and Prado as merely a deputy. Delgado, based on other references, would have been senior. Alaman, 484.

Hall and Beltrán both mention the one man who begged to be shot, as does Natchitoches Indian Factor Thomas Linnard. Beltrán identifies this man as Salcedo, Linnard as Herrera. Schwartz, 31. Hunter, “San Antonio’s First Great Tragedy,” 48. Linnard to Mason, May 7, 1813, Letterbook of the Natchitoches Sulphur Fork Factory, National Archives, T1029. McDonald, 26. Anonymous [Navarro] account in Gulick, 4(2):7.

Sunday, November 28, 2021

List of Foreign Volunteers in the Republican Army of the North


Compiled from various sources, including expedition accounts, Spanish sources, newspapers, genealogical works, archival records. This list represents at most one quarter of all participants, likely less.


1.             Samuel Alden – Shoe salesman who traveled with Toledo to Texas. Believed to have died at Medina

2.             Benjamin Allen – Killed at the Battle of Medina

3.             David Allen – Killed at the Battle of Medina

4.             Hiram Allen – Killed at the Battle of Medina

5.             Martin Allen – Was on a recruiting trip to Natchitoches when Battle of Medina occurred. Father Benjamin Allen, Brother Hiram Allen and nephew David Allen all killed. Old 300 settler

6.             William Richmond Anderson – In Sexton list of Republican Army Veterans seeking Mexican Pensions.

7.             Robert Armstrong – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. Had been on the Arkansas Frontier as a horse smuggler in 1811.

8.             John Ash – Fought at La Bahia and Rosillo, but left with Reuben Ross when he abandoned his command in June 1813.

9.             J. John Baker – In Sexton list

10.          J. Littleton Bailey – In Sexton list

11.          Samuel Barber – Was at La Bahia, but left somewhat later. Migrated to Texas in 1829. Died in 1864.

12.          Stephen Barker – Later served on James Long’s “Supreme Council.”

13.          Carlos (Charles) Beltran – Name is an invention. Real identity unknown. Claimed he was Burr recruit who settled in Texas in 1807. Imprisoned at the Alamo, fought at Battle of Alazan and Medina. Settled in Chihuahua in later years. His account was preserved by the American consul there and published in the 1940s.

14.          Horatio Biglow – Also spelled Bigelow. Printer from Boston who assisted in producing the Gaceta de Tejas in 1813. Served on Long’s “Supreme Council” and published Nacogdoches Texas Republican.

15.          Moses Bonner – In Sexton list

16.          Matthew Bonnette – Possibly French from Natchitoches.

17.          Peter Boone – At 12 years old, he was the youngest member of the Republican Army. A son of Daniel Boone, an American gunsmith in the Spanish service. Captured by the Spanish, he was imprisoned in Monterrey and released on October 14, 1813, King Ferdinand VII’s birthday. Married a Mexican woman and died in 1827. His widow married fellow Republican Army veteran and Spanish prisoner, John Villars.

18.          Benjamin Bradley – In Sexton list

19.          Charles Brandenburg – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader.

20.          James Brown – In Sexton list

21.          William Brown – In Sexton list

22.          Aylett(e) C. Buckner – Known as “Strap” for his physical prowess. Probably fought in all battles in 1813. Returned to Texas and was part of Stephen F. Austin’s “Old 300” settlers.

23.          James Busseuil – In Sexton list. French. Probably the James Bushel listed in the Battle of New Orleans records.

24.          Henry Adams Bullard – Born in 1788 in Massachusetts. See Chap. 2 for full biography. Was aid of Toledo and the Secretary of State of Texas. Engineered Gutiérrez’ ouster. Settled in Louisiana and became successful lawyer, Supreme Court Justice and U.S. Congressman.

25.          William Bullock/Bullett – Possibly a lawyer and Judge in Louisiana or Mississippi after the war. It is possible the “Judge Bullock” or “Judge Bullet” is a conflation with Henry Adams Bullard, who was also a judge.

26.          John G. Burnett – Also spelled Burnet. Served on Long’s “Supreme Council.” Despite the name similarities, there is no indication he is related to future Republic of Texas interim President David G. Burnet.

27.          Joseph Burton – In Sexton list.

28.          Richard Cage – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. His brothers mounted a campaign to have him freed, including letters to Andrew Jackson, in which they claimed he was a trader not at arms. He was from St. Francisville, home of Samuel Kemper.

29.          Bernard Caillavet – – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From New Orleans.

30.          Evariste Calvettes – A Frenchman. Listed as Caliavette in some accounts. Possibly related to Bernard.

31.          John M. Cannon – In Sexton list.

32.          Joseph Carr – A man of property from Mississippi. Mentioned as missing after the Battle of Medina but survived. He submitted a land claim to the Republic of Texas, which is on file in the Texas State Archives. There is no evidence he is related to Judge John C. Carr.

33.          ? Caston – A man from Mississippi probably killed at the Battle of Medina.

34.          Andrew Chase  – No further information.

35.          Michael Chesneu – Possible conflation with Chesneau Tontin, below.

36.          Joshua Child(s) – In Sexton list. Served on Long’s “Supreme Council.”

37.          Albert Cole – No further information.

38.          ? Colonie – A Frenchman traveling with Toledo mentioned by Bullard. It is unclear if he continued on to Texas.

39.          Hamlin Cook – No further information.

40.          Godwin Brown Cotton – A Toledo recruit, helped publish the Gaceta de Tejas. Published the Louisiana Gazette in New Orleans. Settled in Austin’s colony, was the next-door neighbor of William Barret Travis and published the Texas Gazette in San Filipe after 1829.

41.          Charles Craig – In Sexton list. Was a hatter in Catahoula Parish after the war. Was close to Jim and Rezin Bowie.

42.          William Craig – In Sexton list.

43.          William Custard – In Sexton list.

44.          James A. Daniel – In Sexton list.

45.          Samuel Davenport – Spanish Indian trader and one of the wealthiest citizens of Texas before 1812. After joining the rebels, became the Republican Army quartermaster. Left the army at La Bahia and resettled in Natchitoches after the war.

46.          ? Deane – Was living in Mississippi about 1841 and named as a participant in the Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition by Henry Stuart Foote in Texas and the Texans.

47.          Henry Derbonne – Frenchman. Possibly Derbaune, Derbaunne or Derbane.

48.          Bernardo Despallier – French Creole settled in Texas in 1806, expelled in 1809-10. Was key early aid to Gutiérrez. Left after Battle of La Bahia and settled in Rapides, Louisiana. Father of Alamo defenders Carlos Despallier and Blaz Philippe Despallier. Father-in-law was Luis Grande, a republican messenger killed by the Spanish.

49.          George M. Dick – Mentioned in Toledo’s list of Republican Army Officers as a lieutenant. Killed at the Battle of Medina.

50.          Peter Dillon – No further information.

51.          Pierre Dolet – A Frenchman living in Nacogdoches region prior to 1809, when most foreigners were expelled.

52.          Bernardo D'Ortolant – Also D’Ortolan. Long-time resident of Nacogdoches. Was the Frenchman who spoke with Gen. Octaviano D’Alvimar after his detention in Nacogdoches in 1809.

53.          Robert M. Doughty – In Sexton list.

54.          Anthony Dubois – A Frenchman living in Nacogdoches region prior to 1809, when most foreigners were expelled.

55.          William Dukes – In Sexton list.

56.          Andrew Dumar – In Sexton list.

57.          ? Eoses – Mentioned in the Gaceta de Tejas.

58.          William Evans – In Sexton list.

59.          John Ewing – In Sexton list.

60.          William Ferguson – In Sexton list.

61.          John Ferguson – In Sexton list.

62.          Thomas Fetty Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Catahoula Parish, Louisiana.

63.          William Fisher – The Adjutant General of the Republican Army.

64.          Bart Fleming – From Louisiana. Sent a letter on June 7, 1813 describing the Battle of Rosillo.

65.          Dr. Samuel D. Forsyth – Former U.S. Army Surgeon’s Mate. Served at La Bahia and conspicuous in valor at the Battle of Rosillo. Escorted Gutiérrez out of Texas after he had been removed from command. Continued revolutionary activity as an aid to Simón Bolivar in Venezuela. Died in 1841.

66.          Isaac Foster – Survived the Battle of Medina and gave an affidavit in 1815 stating that Peter Sides was killed in the battle. Was living in East Baton Rouge Parish at the time.

67.          David Foster – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. Possible relative of Isaac.

68.          William Francis – According to the Lamar papers was a reluctant member of the expedition, as he joined to avoid arrest. However, Claiborne’s letters suggest Francis was caught smuggling arms to the expedition, was paroled after feigning ignorance and then escaped to join the republicans.

69.          James Gaines – Returned to Texas; signed the 1836 Texas Declaration of Independence. See Gaines, James Taylor, Handbook of Texas.

70.          Alexander Germeuil – Listed as Germaile in some records, from North Carolina and considered one of the ablest men in the army. Served as aide-de-camp to Gutiérrez, but could not command because he was a Frenchman. Likely the same A. Germeuil who served alongside other Texas veterans at the Battle of New Orleans.

71.          Henry Gilmore – In Sexton list.

72.          Charles Gormley – Also listed as Gromby. Led the fight around one of the Pickets at La Bahía.  Listed as killed at the Battle of Medina by Toledo but was actually captured by the Spanish and imprisoned. Released on King Ferdinand’s birthday in 1814. He was not identified in these accounts as Charles, but he is likely the Charles Gonevey listed in Toledo’s list of officers.

73.          ? Gormley– Accounts of the battle in Niles Register listed “two Gormleys” as missing.

74.          Alexis Grappe

75.          H. Greg – In Sexton list.

76.          Nathan M. Hale – American who served as the Republican Army of the North’s representative on the Béxar Junta. He signed the letter which initially discouraged Toledo from coming to Texas.

77.          Darlington Hall – Born in 1785 in South Carolina, moved to Tennessee in 1809. Fought in the Battle of Medina, was wounded and died a short time later.

78.          John "Jack" W. Hall – Brother of Warren D.C. Hall. Family came to Louisiana soon after the Louisiana Purchase. Survived the war and returned to Texas in 1822. Established a ferry at the site of Washington-on-the-Brazos, where the 1836 Texas Declaration of Independence was signed. Jack Hall was the Washington County sheriff and County Judge, who raised the local militia and provided supplies for the revolution. Died in 1845.

79.          Warren D.C. Hall – Brother of Jack Hall. Close friend of William Murray. Wrote one of the first-hand accounts of the 1812-13 revolution. Left San Antonio after the murder of the royal officials. Joined the Aury Expedition with Henry Perry in 1815. Settled in Texas in 1828. In 1836, appointed adjutant general of the Provisional Republic of Texas and later served as Secretary of War. Was part of the Somervell Expedition in 1842, which was part of ongoing hostilities between the Republic of Texas and Mexico. Died in 1867. Hall County, Texas is named after him. See Hall, Warren D.C. in Handbook of Texas

80.          William Ham – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader.

81.          Eli Harris – No further information.

82.          Charles A. Hickman – No further information.

83.          William Hickman – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. Possible relative of Charles.

84.          John Holly – In Sexton list.

85.          Stephen Holstein – In Sexton list.

86.          ? Holmes – Served at La Bahia. Led a company of 50 republican soldiers that attacked the Spanish rear during its retreat from La Bahia, capturing the baggage train, according to Hall.

87.          Amos Hubbard – In Sexton list.

88.          Daniel James – In Sexton list.

89.          George James – In Sexton list.

90.          James Johnson – In Sexton list; also among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Catahoula Parish, Louisiana.

91.          Jud Johnson – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Catahoula Parish, Louisiana, possible relative of James.

92.          Darius Johnston – Brother of Orramel. Was a lawyer from Kentucky. Captured after Medina and imprisoned by the Spanish. Returned with health wrecked. Died in 1819.

93.          Orramel Johnston – Brother of Darius. A doctor from Louisiana. He wrote the letter to President Madison warning him about the filibuster, then joined it anyway. According to Beltran, when the Spanish officers were about to be executed, one asked the rebel executioners to give his watch to Orramel Johnston. Like his brother, captured and health wrecked. He died in 1826.

94.          Frank Johnstone – Probable member, based on an account of the Battle of Medina provided to Republic of Texas official Richard R. Royall in the 1830s. Lamar Papers.

95.          Blake B. Jones – In Sexton list.

96.          David G. Jones – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader.

97.          William Justice – In Sexton list.

98.          Samuel Kemper – From Cincinnati, Ohio. Moved to West Florida with brothers Reuben and Nathaniel, was a leader in the West Florida revolution (noted in Chapter 1). Served as the Republican Army of the North commander from the death of Magee to the surrender of San Antonio. Left on a furlough and missed the Battle of Alazán. Returned from the Battle of Medina. Plagued by ill health, died in late 1814.

99.          James Kenneday/Kennedy – In Sexton list. Took over from Captain Scott, who had fled the army during the fighting at La Bahia. Served at Battle of Alazán, where his detachment was ordered to repel Col. Elizondo’s flanking attack.

100.      John Gladden King – Survived the Battle of Medina, settled in Texas in 1830. Son William Phillip King died at the Alamo

101.      Amalie Lafitte – No further information. There are many Lafittes in Louisiana, and not all are closely related to the famous pirates of that name.

102.      Bernard Lafitte – No further information. Possible relative of Amalie.

103.      Abner Lane – Wounded at the Battle of Medina and hid with Comanches along with Charles Beltrán. Possible he is the same person as A.W. McClain.

104.      Charles Lauranu – In Sexton list.

105.      Louis Lathum – From the Neutral Ground, where his home was burned by Augustus Magee in 1812. He survived and returned there.

106.      David Long – No further information.

107.      James Louard – In Sexton list; also among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader.

108.      Thomas Hussey Luckett, Jr. – Served as the Republican Army artillery officer. Survived the war and submitted a claim on the Republic of Mexico.

109.      ? Lutzer – In Sexton list.

110.      John Lynch – In Sexton list.

111.      Joel Lyon – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader.

112.      Dan MacLean/McClean

113.      ? Madison – Possible participant in some sources. This may be a conflation with the “Madison Brigade.”

114.      Augustus Magee – Commander of the Republican Army of the North, died of illness at La Bahía. See Magee, Augustus in Handbook of Texas.

115.      William Manadue – In Sexton list.

116.      Louis Massicot(t) – Republican Army/Béxar Junta secretary. Killed at the Battle of Alazán.

117.      A.W. McClain – A native of North Carolina who escaped the Battle of Medina by hiding with friendly Indians. Likely the same “Abner Lane” whom Beltrán describes with a similar story. Returned to Texas and settled in the Austin Colony, settling near Crockett, Texas.

118.      John McFarlan – “Little John” McFarlan, long term Spanish resident of Texas, smuggler and Republican Army Scout. Returned to Texas as a squatter at San Felipe.

119.      James McKim – Leader of the Neutral Ground banditti, kept a diary that was available to Henderson Yoakhum, but since lost.

120.      William McLane – Survived, settled in San Antonio and wrote a narrative of the expedition.

121.      John McLannahan – No further information. Possible relative of the Missouri Santa Fe trader Joseph McLannahan.

122.      Thomas McLaughlin – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Mississippi Territory.

123.      James McWilliams – In Sexton list.

124.      Martin McWilliams – In Sexton list. Possible relative of James.

125.      Francis J. Menepier – A Frenchman who also served as Gutiérrez’ secretary. Name appears in Carr documentations. Possibly the “Menezee” to whom John Villars attributed a since-lost narrative of the expedition published in Cincinnati (undiscovered).

126.      Tenoss Moinet – No further information.

127.      Aaron Samuel Mower – Printer who arrived with Toledo and set the type for the Gaceta de Texas, the first newspaper ever set in Texas. Sometimes called “Moore.”

128.      ? Munholland – In Sexton list. Possibly Mulholland.

129.      Charles Muill – Listed as Carles Muill in 1815 Toledo list of officers. There is no definitive proof he had been with the army in Texas, as some later officers joined after Medina.

130.      Henry William Munson – Wounded at Medina and survived after being saved by a Mexican rebel, Santiago Mordella. Fought in the Long Expedition and settled in Texas in the 1820s.

131.      William A. Murray – Early Burr recruit and friend of Augustus Magee. Accompanied Magee to negotiate with Salcedo and Herrera at La Bahia. Was still listed as a Captain in service in Toledo’s army in February 1815. Became a judge in Rapides Parish, Louisiana after the war.

132.      Jacob Myers – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Cole’s Creek, Mississippi Territory.

133.      Samuel Noah – Native of England. Jewish West Point graduate who resigned his commission in the U.S. Army in order to avoid conviction in a court martial in 1809. He joined the expedition after it had entered Texas. Served at La Bahia. Abandoned the expedition after the murder of the Spanish royalists. Fought in War of 1812. Taught school in Virginia in 1840s. At death was the oldest living graduate of West Point.

134.      James O’Donnell – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Cole’s Creek, Mississippi Territory.

135.      H.J. Offutt – Possibly Offeet. Ross Papers.

136.      George Orr – One of the original company captains. Fought at the Battle of Medina. Submitted a claim with the Mexican government but did not receive payment. Settled in Atascocita, Texas where he was an alcalde alongside fellow veteran Munson.

137.      William Owen(s) – Originally from Baltimore, was living in Natchitoches as a merchant where he was implicated in trade with the Texas smuggler John Magee. Joined the expedition and was killed at the Battle of Rosillo.

138.      William Parker – TFTOSF

139.      Anthony Parish/Pared – From North Carolina. Settled in Nacogdoches in 1801. Was expelled with most other foreigners in 1810. McLane describes him as bearing a brand for a crime committed in North Carolina.

140.      Alexander Patterson – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Cole’s Creek, Mississippi Territory.

141.      Frederic Patterson – In Sexton list. Possible relative of Alexander, or alternatively, of the James Patterson of the Missouri Santa Fe traders.

142.      Leonard Patterson – In Sexton list. Possible relative of the other Pattersons noted.

143.      Stephen Paul – In Sexton list.

144.      Isaac Paul – In Sexton list. Possible relative of Stephen.

145.      Henry Perry – The Commander of the Republican Army at the Battle of Alazán. Survived the Battle of Medina and commanded a battery of cannon at the Battle of New Orleans. Joined the Anaya and Perry Expeditions into Texas in 1816 and 1817 and was surrounded by Spanish forces outside La Bahía, where he committed suicide rather than be captured.

146.      David Phelps – A doctor from Louisiana.

147.      W. Phierson – Was with Reuben Ross when he returned from his recruiting expedition in Natchitoches during the Siege of La Bahia.

148.      Joseph Phillips – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Baltimore.

149.      Juan Pincornel – Old Spanish revolutionary who joined Toledo’s band of recruits in Philadelphia. Later betrayed the revolutionary cause and reconciled with Spain.

150.      George Powell – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Natchitoches.

151.      Joseph Powell – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Kentucky.

152.      William A. Prentiss

153.      ? Prudhomme – Most likely Jean Baptiste or Francois Prudhomme, both of whom lived in Nacogdoches before being expelled by the Spaniards.

154.      William Price – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Natchez.

155.      Edmund Quirk – American Revolutionary War veteran. Settled in Spanish Texas in 1797. Owned land on Ayish Bayou, now the site of the City of San Augustine, where the opening battle of the revolution was fought. He was implicated in smuggling, captured and imprisoned in the Alamo. Liberated by the republicans, he was recaptured and imprisoned once again before being released in a subsequent amnesty. It has been asserted, but never proven, that he joined the Republican Army. Returned to Texas in 1818. One account has him killed in 1835, although this may have been his son, Edmund Quirk, Jr.

156.      Michael/Miguel Quinn – Former Texas resident, smuggler. On Toledo’s list of captains of the Republican Army.

157.      William Ramage – In Sexton list.

158.      Samuel Richards – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader.

159.      Elisha Roberts – Was a messenger for the Republican Army. Possibly had lived on Edmund Quirk’s land before the war.

160.      Andrew Robinson – Returned to Texas in 1824 and settled in Brazoria County, where he served in Stephen F. Austin’s militia. His daughter married fellow Republican veteran John W. Hall. May have moved to Mississippi before 1841. See Robinson, Andrew in Handbook of Texas.

161.      Benjamin Robinson – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From South Carolina. Possible relative of Andrew.

162.      Charles (Charley) Rollins – A Coushatta Indian chief who fought with the Republican Army alongside his Anglo father. Joined when Reuben Ross came to East Texas to recruit.

163.      ? Rollins – Charley Rollins’ father.

164.      Reuben Ross – Third Commander of the Republican Army after the departure of Samuel Kemper, then abandoned the force at the urging of his Tejano girlfriend. Returned to Mexico to seek a pension in 1826. Was killed by bandits in northern Mexico in 1828. His nephews, Reuben Ross and James Ross served in the army of the Republic of Texas. Reuben Ross the younger joined the army of the Republic of the Rio Grande.

165.      Samuel Ross – In Sexton list. Not related to Reuben Ross.

166.      Samuel Rowe – In Sexton list.

167.      James Royall – On Toledo list as a captain, killed at the Battle of Medina. Richard Royster Royall, who provided information about the expedition to Mirabeau Lamar, is a possible relative.

168.      Lacy Rumsey – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From Natchitoches.

169.      Joseph Ruth – No further information.

170.      ? Scott – No further information.

171.      Samuel Sexton – Possibly a doctor, he stayed in San Antonio for 47 days after the Battle of Medina, evidently with permission of the Spanish, to attend the prisoners. Led the efforts of republican veterans from Louisiana to obtain Mexican pensions.

172.      Peter Sides – From North Carolina. Fought in the American Revolution. Served in the republican army under Captain Gormley/Gromby. Killed at the Battle of Medina.

173.      Thomas Slocum – Possibly a doctor. In Sexton list.

174.      William Slocum – In Sexton list. Possible relative or even conflation with Thomas.

175.      Horatio Smith – In Sexton list.

176.      Lovett Smith – In Sexton list.

177.      Orren Smith – In Sexton list.

178.      Patrick Smith – In Sexton list.

179.      William Snodgrass – Native of Mississippi reported killed at Battle of Rosillo.

180.      Benjamin Stokes – In Sexton list.

181.      James Stone – In Sexton list.

182.      Daniel Sullivan – In Sexton list.

183.      Ambrose Sutton – In Sexton list.

184.      Charles Swan – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. From New York.

185.      Josiah Taylor – Burr conspirator and leader of one of the wings of the Republican Army at the battles of Alazán and Medina. Wounded at Medina. Returned to Texas and had five sons who served in the forces of the Republic of Texas.

186.      Thomas Taylor – Josiah Taylor’s African American slave who fought in the army and was killed at the Battle of the White Cow. Said to be among the best soldiers in the army.

187.      Chesneau Tontin – Possibly the same person as Francisco Tuotin, mentioned in Spanish archival sources as an Indian trader.

188.      William Utridge – In Sexton list.

189.      John Villars – Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader. Transferred to prison in Monterrey, survived and returned to Texas. Settled in San Fernando, Coahuila. Gave historical notes to Mirabeau Lamar.[1]

190.      W.W. Walker – Survived and served as a key member of the Long Expedition. 

191.      Augustus Wallace – In Sexton list.

192.      James Wallace, Sr. – In Sexton list.

193.      James Wallace, Jr. – In Sexton list.

194.      Stephen Wallace – No further information.

195.      Charles F. Walthers – In Sexton list.

196.      Isaac Walthers – In Sexton list.

197.      George Westfield – No further information.

198.      Osgood Whittier – In Sexton list.

199.      Joseph Biddle Wilkinson – Son of General James Wilkinson. Died of wounds received at Medina.

200.      James Biddle Wilkinson – Possibly served in the army, although it is possible he was confused with his brother Joseph.

201.      (Adjutant) Wilson – No further information.

202.      Samuel Winfield (Wingfield) – In Sexton list. Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader.

203.      Michael Wolford/Wolforth – Also Woolfourth. In Sexton list. Among group of 29 men captured after the Battle of Medina mentioned in the Mississippi Free Trader.

204.      Walter Young – From New York and handled artillery at Alazán. Served in War of 1812. Subsequently joined the Mina Expedition.